Department of Mathematics Education
Annotated Bibliography of
Multicultural Issues in Mathematics Education
Patricia S. Wilson, Julio C. Mosquera P.,
Marilyn E. Strutchens, and Annicia J. Thomas
The Annotated Bibliography of Multicultural Issues in Mathematics
Education is the product of work at the University of Georgia from June
1990- June 1994. We appreciate the advice and contributions of scholars
throughout the world who have critiqued the contents and offered entries.
We sincerely hope this work will contribute to the international effort
that is being made to relate theoretical frameworks and research in diverse
fields such as mathematics, history, psychology, sociology, and anthropology
to work in mathematics education. The bibliography focuses on both the contributions
of many cultures to mathematics and the ways in which culture may affect
mathematics teaching and learning. Nature of the Bibliography
The bibliography contains journal articles, books, monographs, popular
press, and conference papers related to multicultural issues in mathematics
education. We have compiled a bibliography that addresses issues that mathematics
educators need to consider for research and for practices. Most articles
are not written by mathematics educators and many articles do not directly
refer to mathematics or mathematics education, but the collection does offer
relevant studies and theories for the mathematics education community.Organization of the Bibliography
The bibliography is multicultural, representing work about a variety of
cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and ages, as well as a variety
of philosophical perspectives. While the collection is quite diverse, some
individual entries are based on only one culture. A broad reading of the
bibliography should help the reader develop a sense of how diverse cultural
groups have constructed and continue to construct mathematical ideas, techniques,
and structures, and have contributed to the development of mathematics.
The literature also documents the under representation of some groups in
both the study and practice of mathematics education as well as "traditional"
accounts of the history of mathematics. Possible causes are suggested.
The bibliography is organized into three major sections: General (1),
Mathematics (2), Science (3). Each major section is subdivided into three
groups: Theory (1), Practice (2), and Research (3). For example, articles
in section 2.1 are related to mathematics and mathematics education and
are theoretical in nature. The categories are neither discrete nor exhaustive,
but we did classify each entry so that it appears only once in the bibliography.
We would like to thank following graduate students at The University
of Georgia for their advice, discussions, and annotations: Karen Brooks
(US), Simeon Hau (Milawi), Daire Hubert (US), Steve Jackson (US), Cindy
Jones (US), Julio Mosquera (Venezuela), Nicholas Oppong (Ghana), Shannon
Primm (US), Jeneri Sagnia (Gambia), Marilyn Strutchens (US), Tingyao Zheng
(Peoples Republic of China). We are also grateful to professors Dr. James
Deegan (Ireland), Dr. Toshiko Kajji (Japan), and Dr. Mary Atwater (US) for
their participation.Future of the Bibliography
The project has been funded by the University of Georgia and the Eisenhower
Program for the Improvement of Mathematics and Science. Although the grant
has ended, we hope to continue to update the bibliography periodically and
we welcome further contributions. Please send additional bibliographic entries
and annotations, or annotations of current unannotated entries to :
Dr. Patricia S. Wilson
University of Georgia
105 Aderhold Hall
Athens, GA 30602
Table of Contents
Anderson, J. A. (1988). Cognitive styles and multicultural populations.
Journal of Teacher Education, 39, 1, 2-9.
In this article James Anderson discussed the need for teachers
to consider the cognitive styles or learning styles of students. He argued
that white middle class students have a cognitive style (analytical) that
is in line with the type of teaching which goes on in the classroom and
are thus more apt to succeed than minority students who usually possess
relational cognitive styles which do not correlate well with the type of
teaching that goes on in the schools. The article contained tables which
compare the characteristics of analytical versus relational learners and
some fundamental differences between Non­p;Western versus Western World
views. It also contained an extensive reference list.
Banks, J. (1988). Ethnicity, class, cognitive, and motivational styles:
Research and teaching implications. Journal of Negro Education, 57,
This article was a literature review of conflicting explanations
and paradigms that have emerged since the civil rights movement of the 1960s
to explain the low academic achievement of ethnic youths. The author discussd
ethnicity, socioeconomic status, cognitive styles and motivational styles.
He concluded by stating that equity will exist for all students when teachers
become sensitive to the cultural diversity in their classrooms, vary their
teaching styles so as to appeal to diverse student population, and modify
their curricula to include ethnic content. The article contained a large
Banks, J. (1989). The battle over the canon: Cultural diversity and curriculum
reform. Educator's Forum, 1, 11-13.
Baptiste, H. P. (1989). Multicultural education and urban school from a
sociohistorical perspective: Internalizing multiculturalism. In University
Council for Educational Administration (Ed.), School leadership: A contemporary
reader (pp. 187-204). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Boykin, W. (1986). The triple quandary and the schooling of Afro-American
children. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children:
New perspectives (pp. 169-189). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bracey, G. W. (1988). Culture, psychology, biology and mathematics achievement.
Phi Delta Kappan, 70, 525-527.
In this article, Bracey argued that research that was done in
Western cultures with a view to illustrate general laws of behavior did
not usually produce similar results in other cultures. He based his arguments
on the research findings of Sandra Marshall et al. of San Diego University
and Paul Brandon et al. of University of Hawaii. Each of these studies examined
gender in mathematics performance. While it was generally true that girls
performed better than boys in the California Achievement program, in Hawaii,
especially among the Caucasians, boys outperformed their female counterparts
in mathematics. These were the issues he raised and examined in much detail
in this article.
Brown, T. (1987). Issues in "multi-ethnic education". Mathematics
Teaching, 120, 8-10.
This article addressed the conflict between the institutional
language of mathematics and personal mathematising for students. The author
suggested that rather than focusing on the differences in cultures in the
teaching of mathematics we may more profitably seek a common core of mathematics
experience through personal mathematising. The institutional language of
mathematics often conflicted with this personal mathematics.
Cárdenas, J. A. (1986). The role of native-language instruction in
bilingual education. Phi Delta Kappan, 67, 5, 359-363.
Chavez, L. (1990, July 18). The real aim of the promoters of cultural diversity
is to exclude certain people and to foreclose debate. The Chronicle of
Higher Education, pp. B1-B2.
Cohen, R. A. (1969). Conceptual styles, culture conflict and nonverbal tests
of intelligence. American Anthropologist, 71, 828-856.
Cohen discussed two conceptual styles: relational and analytic.
In the article, the author compared the two styles across racial, socioeconomic
status, and cultural groups. She discussed how different socialization practices
fostered the development of one style over the other. Moreover, she reported
that different environments were more compatible with one style versus the
Crawford, J. (1989). English only or English plus? In Bilingual Education:
History, Politics, Theory, and Practice (pp. 52-69). Trenton, NJ: Crane
Publishing Company, Inc.
This chapter was about the effect declaring English as an official
language has on bilingual education within the United States. The author
discussed agencies formed to advocate restrictions on immigration and their
goals. He also compared English versus bilingual education.
Cummins, J. (1986). Empowering minority students: A framework for intervention.
Harvard Educational Review, 56, 18-36.
D'Andrade, R. G. (1981). The cultural part of cognition. Cognitive Science,
Diop, C. A. (1991). How to define cultural diversity. In Civilization
or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology (pp. 211-219). Brooklyn, NY:
In this book section, Diop attempts to answer the question,
"How to define cultural identity?" The author writes that one
must analyze the components of the collective personality. He discusses
three factors which contribte to its formation-historical, linguistic, and
psychological. The historical factor unifies the different elements of a
people to make them into a whole. The linguistic factor implies that language
has a major influence on cultural personality. Identifying a people by physical
traits is a component of the psychological factor. The author feels that
the difficulties and the failures in intercultural relations can be dealt
with if the process in which two given cultures are born, developed, and
make contact with each other should be evaluated.
Fauvel, J. and P. Gerdes (1990). African slave and calculating prodigy:
Bicentenary of the death of Thomas Fuller. Historia Mathematica, 17,
This article was about the life of Thomas Fuller, an African
shipped to America as a slave in 1724. He had never learned to read nor
write, yet he had remarkable powers of calculation. The authors examined
Fuller's story in three perspectives: the liberatory, the psychologistic,
and the mathematical.
Fehr, F. S. (1969). Critique of hereditarian accounts of "intelligence"
and contrary findings: A reply to Jensen. Science, Heritability and IQ,
Harvard Educational Review: Serial No. 4, 39, 3, 571-580.
Finn, G. P. T. (1987). Multicultural anti-racism and Scottish education.
Scottish Educational Review, 19, 1, 39-49.
Ginsburg, H. P. (1986). The myth of the deprived child: New thoughts on
poor children. In U. Neisser (Eds.), The school achievement of minority
children: New perspectives (pp. 169-189). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
The purpose of this chapter was to evaluate the past 10 to 15
years' of psychological research on the intellectual development and education
of poor children's minds. Ginsburg pointed out that school failure of poor
children cannot be attributed to cognitive deficits which had been a popular
theory in the past. The author also suggested new directions for research
related to the school failure of poor children.
Greenough, W. T. (1973). Introduction. In W. T. Greenough (Eds.), The
nature and nurture of behavior: Developmental Psychobiology (pp. 83-85).
San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.
This part of the book reviewed the studies of environmental
developments of the complex behavior of organisms. The issues which were
indentified by psychologists and discussed here were crucial development
stage, mother-child relaltionship, peers, environment, and exposure to complex
situations. The author believed that both genetic and environmental contributions
mold one's intelligence and the determination of the quantity of the contribution
Hill, J. (1971). The educational sciences. Bloomfield Hills, MI:
Oakland Community College.
Jencks, C. (1972). The heredity/environment controversy. In C. Jencks (Ed.),
Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and schooling in America
(pp.64-84). New York: Basic Books.
In this chapter, Jencks discussed the heredity versus environment
issues that influence test scores. He examined the heritability of intelligence
and/or the ability to perform well on IQ and achievement tests. He also
looked at the possible environmental influences on these tests such as family
background, economic background, and race. Jenks mentioned studies conducted
in the United States relative to the controversy between genetic and environmental
influences on intelligence. He supported the idea that the combination of
genetic and environmental influences determined intelligence.
Jensen, A. R. (1972). Genetics and education. New York: Harper &
Jensen, A. R. (1984). Objectivity and the genetics of I. Q., a reply to
Steven Selden. Phi Delta Kappan, 66, 284-286.
Jensen, A. R. (1984). Political ideologies and educational research. Phi
Delta Kappan, 65, 460-462.
In this article, the author discussed the influence varying
political ideologies have and should have in the different aspects of educational
research. The author described a "Reality Principle" which embodied
the knowledge and reality germane to the most fundamental process of education.
This reality existed separate and distinct from the various political ideologies
in which educational research may be conducted. The article included a discussion
of similar findings in educational research which have come from different
ideological backgrounds (U.S., Soviet Union, etc.).
Maurice, B. (1987). Tales of underdevelopment. Race & Class, 28,
Mitchell, J. (1982). Reflections of a Black social scientist: Some struggles,
some doubts, some hopes. Harvard Educational Review, 52, 1, 118-134.
Muherjee, T. (1983). Multicultural education: A black perspective. Early
Child Development and Care, 10, 275­p;282.
The article discussed the existence of racism in the British
educational system. He stated: "An antiracist process of education
and socialization should enable pupils to develop a critical view of life
and society. Furthermore, the process could enable pupils to operate across
cultures, projecting a multiple presentation of self, without losing one's
particular ethnicity or identity; maintaining, developing and exploring
vertical and horizontal forms of communication, to negotiate a meaningful
position in society with responsibility, status and access to power."
Neisser, U. (1986). New answers to and old question. In U. Neisser (Ed.),
The school achievement of minority children: New perspectives (pp.
1-17). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
In this chapter Neisser presented an overview of the book. He
compared and contrasted the different points of view of the authors featured
in the book. The major focus of the chapter was the comparison of cognitive
deficit views on intellectual differences versus cognitive conflict views.
Oakes, J. and M. Lipton (1990). Tracking and ability grouping: A structural
barrier to access and achievement. In J. Goodlad and P. Keating (Eds.),
Access to Knowledge: An Agenda for our Nation's Schools (pp. 187-204).
New York: CEEB.
In this chapter, the authors argued that tracking is embedded
in a schooling context and a societal context. Together, the contexts help
to better understand why tracking works to the disadvantage of most students.
The purpose of these contexts is to appreciate what school reformers may
be facing if they attempt to change tracking practices without considering
strong assumptions and traditions that underlie tracking.
Ogbu, J. U. (1986). The consequences of the American caste system. In U.
Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children: New perspectives
(pp. 19­p;56). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
The author described and discussed the American caste system
in terms of minorities. He listed three types of minorities: autonomous,
immigrant, and caste-like. His major focus was on caste-like minorities
with an emphasis on Black Americans. He discussed the negative effects of
being a member of a caste-like minority in the United States.
Ornstein, A. C. and D. U. Levine (1984). Social class, race, and school
achievement. In An Introduction to Foundations of Education (pp.
363-396). Dallas, TX: Houghton Mifflin.
Pnag, V. O. (1990). Asian-American children: A diverse population. The
Educational Forum, 55, 1, 49-66.
Rey, M. (1986). Training teachers in intercultural education? Strasbourg:
The Council of Europe.
Sarup, M. (1986). The politics of multiracial education. London:
Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Shangi, L. M. (1983). Racial stratification, sex, and mental ability: A
comparison of five groups in Trinidad. Journal of Black Studies, 14,
Sonya, N. (1991). Affriming diversity: The sociopolitical context of
multicultural education. White Plans, NY: Longman.
Sowell, T. (1978). Race and IQ reconsidered. In T. Sowell (Ed.), American
Ethnic Groups (pp. 229). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Steele, C. M. (1992). Race and the schooling of Black Americans. The
Atlantic Monthly, April, 68-78.
Stinchcombe, A. L. (1969). Environment: The cumulation of events. Science,
Heritability, and IQ (Harvard Educational Review: Serial No. 4), 39,
Straker-Weds, M. (Ed.). (1984). Education for a multicultural society.
London: Bell & Hyman.
Valsiner, J. (1989). General introduction: How can developmental psychology
become "culture-inclusive"? In J. Valsiner (Ed.), Child development
in cultural context (pp. 1-10). Toronto: Hogrefe and Huber.
Valsiner, J. (1989). From group comparisons to knowledge: A lesson from
cross- cultural psychology. In J. P. Forgas and J. M. Innes (Eds.), Recent
advances in social psychology: An international perspective (pp. 501-510).
New York: North-Holland.
Vasquez, J. (1988). Contexts of learning for minority students. The Educational
Forum, 52, 3, 243-253.
von Glasersfeld, E. (1989). Cognition, construction of knowledge, and teaching.
SYNTHESE, 80, 1,.
Weiner, G. (Ed.). (1985). Gender and education: Just a bunch of girls.
London: Open University Press.
This book contained a collection of articles on gender-related
issues in the classroom. It was divided into three sections: important issues
in education related to gender and race; interviews with girls about their
experiences in school; and school accounts and actions related to sexism
in the school. The book mentioned two views on improving girls' education:
equality of opportunities, and the anti-sexist approach characterised as
female-centered education. The latter view was focus of the majority of
the papers in the book. Contained an extensive reference list.
Yates, P. D. (1986). Figure and section: Ethnography and education in the
multicultural state. In S. Modgil, G. Verma, K. Mallick & C. Modgil
(Eds.), Multicultural Education: The Interminable Debate (pp. 61-75).
The article was primarily a discussion of ethnography. The author
compared the sociology on educational ethnography in the United Kingdom
to anthropology education in the United States.
Arizona Department of Education (1990). Strategies for teaching limited
English proficient students: Part I. Phoenix, AR: The Author.
Bodmer, W. F. & L. L. Cavalli-Sforza (1973). Intelligence and race.
In W. T. Greenough (Ed.), The nature and nurture of behavior (pp.
125-135). San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.
Davison, D. M. (1992). Strategies for teaching mathematics to the American
Indian student. In J. Reyhner (Ed.), Teaching the American Indian student
(pp. 241-250). Norman, OK: Univeristy of Oklahoma.
Davison, D. M. (1992). Teaching mathematics to American Indian students:
An ethnomathematics perspective. In B. Barton (Ed.), Indigenous peoples
and mathematics education (pp. 23-30). Auckland, NZ: Auckland College
Fullilove, R. E. (1986). Sealing the leaks in the pipeline: Improving
the performance and persistence of minority students in college. Unpublished
paper. University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Hernández, H. (1989). Multicultural education: A teacher's guide
to content and process. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Lyons, N. (1990). Homogeneous classes may be best way to curb black male
dropout rate. Black Issues in Higher Education, 6, 21, 10-11.
Moll, L., C. Amanti, D. Neff and N. Gonzalez (1992). Funds of knowledge
for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms.
Theory of Practice, 31, 2, 132-141.
Rist, R. C. (1975). Student social class and teacher expectations: The self-fulfilling
prophecy in ghetto education. In Challenging the myths: The schools, the
blacks, the poor (Harvard Educational Review: Serial No. 5) (pp.
70-110). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wigginton, E. (Ed.). (1971). The foxfire book. Garden City, NY: Anchorage
Apple, M. W. (1989). How equality has been redefined in the conservative
restoration. In W. G. Secada (Ed.), Equity in education (pp. 7-35).
Burton, N. W. and L. V. Jones (1982). Recent trends in achievement levels
of black and white youth. Educational Researcher, 11, 10-14.
Burton and Jones interpreted data collected by the National
Assessment of Educational Progress. The data reflected trends in the levels
of achievement of black and white students 9- and 13-years old in the United
States from 1970 to 1980. There was a noticeable decrease in the differences
in achievement between black and white students during this decade. The
steady decline may be attributed to the increase of opportunities available
to black youth in the past twenty-five years. The article contained several
graphs to illustrate the shrinking differences in achievement levels.
Clark, R. M. (1984). Family life and school achievement: Why poor Black
children succeed or fail. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Dar, Y. and N. Resh (1991). Socioeconomic and ethnic gaps in academic achievement
in Israel junior high school. In N. Bleichrodt and P. J. D. Drenth (Eds.),
Contermporary issues in cross-cultural psychology (pp. 322-333).
Berwyn, PA: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Davison, D. M. and D. L. Pearce (1992). The influence of writing activities
on the mathematics learning of American Indian students. Journal of Educational
Issues of Language Minority Students, 10, 147-157.
Deregowski, J. B. (1991). Intercultural search for the origins of perspective.
In N. Bleichrodt and P. J. D. Drenth (Eds.), Contemporary issues in cross-cultural
psychology (pp. 334-346). Berwyn, PA: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Fulton-Scott, M. J. and A. D. Calvin (1983). Bilingual Multicultural Education
vs. Integrated and Non-Integrated ESL Instruction. NABE: The Journal
for the National Association for Bilingual Education, 7, 3, 1-12.
Fulton and Calvin reported a study of three elementary school
programs non-English-proficient Hispanic children: one bilingual multicultural,
one integrated English as a second language (ESL), and one nonintegrated
(ESL). They compared test scores in math, reading, and language achievement
of first and sixth grade students. Their findings showed that bilingual
multicultural students scored higher, on the average, than the rest of the
students on most criteria.
Gillborn, D. (1990). Sexism and curricular 'choice'. Cambridge Journal
of Education, 20, 161-174.
Grant, C. and C. Sleeter (1986). Students' cultural knowledge about human
diversity. In After the School Bell Rings (pp. 23-68). London: Falmer.
In this chapter, the author observed high school students of
different races interact with one another. He investigated the impact of
the school's model of multicultural mainstream education on the students.
The author discussed kinds of friendships, student cultural knowledge, race,
handicap, and gender.
Grant, C. A. (1989). Equity, equality, teachers, and classroom life. In
W. G. Secada (Ed.), Equity in education (pp. 89-102). London: Falmer.
The article discussed the major differences between obtaining
equity versus equality in the classroom. Grant stated that educational equity
meant providing fairness and justice in the classroom life for students
of color, poor students, and white female students. It required establishing
a classroom environment that was not colorblind and teaching in a manner
that accepted and affirmed the learning style differences based on culture
and gender socialization.
Haney, W., G. Madaus and A. Kreitzer (1987). Charms talismatic: Testing
teachers for the improvement of American education. In E. Z. Rothkopf (Ed.),
Review of Research in Education (pp. 169-238). Washington, DC: American
Educational Research Association.
Heath, S. B. (1982). What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home
and school. Language and Society, 2, 49-76.
Hilliard, A. (1976). Alternative to IQ testing: An approach to the identification
of gifted minority children. Sacramento, CA: State Department of Education.
Hilliard, A. (1977). Adapting assessment procedures: The black child.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological
Association, San Francisco, CA.
Hyde, J. S. (1990). Meta-analysis and the psychology of gender differences.
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 16, 1, 55-73.
Kfir, D. (1988). Achievements and aspirations among boys and girls in high
school: A comparison of two Israeli ethnic groups. American Educational
Research Journal, 25, 213-236.
Kindermann, T. and J. Valsiner (1989). Research strategies in culture-inlcusive
developmental psychology. In J. Valsiner (Ed.), Child development in
cultural context (pp. 13-50). Toronto: Hogrefe and Huber.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1990). Culturally relevant teaching. The College
Board Review, 155, 20-25.
This easy-to-read article profiled eight teachers judged to
be effective by African-American parents and principals in teaching African-American
students. The author used two very different teachers to illustrate the
importance of culturally relevant teaching where teachers work within the
dimensions of their conceptions of themselves and others, and their classrooms'
social structure. Examples of each of these types of conceptions were provided.
Langer, P., J. M. Kalk and D. T. Searls (1984). Age of admission and trends
in achievement: A comparison of blacks and caucasians. American Educational
Research Journal, 21, 61-78.
Lipka, J. (1991). Toward a culturally based pedagogy: A case study of one
Yup'ik Eskimo teacher. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 22, 203-223.
Luttrell, W. (1989). Working-class women's ways of knowing: Effects of gender,
race, and class. Sociology of Education, 62, 33-46.
Luttrell presented findings from qualitative research challenging
feminist claims of a single or universal mode of knowing for women. She
argued that what shapes how women think about learning and knowing is a
complex combination of gender, racial, and class relations variables. The
context of this research was adult education.
McCarty, T. L., R. H. Lynch, S. Wallace and A. Benally (1991). Classroom
inquiry and Navajo learning styles: A call for reassessment. Anthropology
& Education Quarterly, 22, 42-59.
McCormick, T. E. (1986). Multicultural education and competency testing:
Conflicts and consequences. Urban Education, 8, 31-42.
Mordkowitz, E. R. and H. P. Ginsburg (1987). Early academic socialization
of successful Asian-American college students. The Quarterly Newsletter
of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 9, 2, 85-91.
Norcross, P. (1990). Racial stereotyping in the all-white primary school.
Cambridge Journal of Education, 20, 29-35.
Oakes, J. (1990). Multiplying inequalities: The effects of race, social
class, and tracking on opportunities to learn mathematics and science.
Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Peshkin, A. and C. J. White (1990). Four black American students: Coming
to age in a multiethnic high school. Teacher College Record, 92, 21-38.
Ramirez, M. (1974). Cognitive styles of children of three ethnic groups
in the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 5, 212-220.
Sachs, J. (1989). Match or mismatch: Teachers' conceptions of culture and
multicultural education policy. Australian Journal of Education, 33,
Scribner, S. (1985). Knowledge at work. Anthropology and Education Quarterly,
The research reported in this paper was based on activity theory.
According to that theory culturally organized action guide the acquisition
and organization of knowledge. The particular research reported here dealt
with how worker in a milk processing plant organized their knowledge. The
results showed that the activities in the plant were organized by social
knowledge. Individuals, however, creatively synthesized several domains
of knowledge in order to organize their own activities.
Secada, W. G. (1989). Educational equity versus equality of education: An
alternative conception. In W. G. Secada (Ed.), Equity in education
(pp. 68-88). London: Falmer.
The article discussed the importance of defining equity and
equality as two different terms. Secada stated that the heart of equity
lies in our ability to acknowledge that, even though our actions might be
in accord with a set of rules, their results may be unjust. Moreover, he
believed that equality and the recognition that group inequalities may be
unjust is one of the most powerful constructs of equity. He also pointed
out that equality explores quantitative differences while equity addresses
Shade, B. (1978). Social-psychological characteristics of achieving black
children. The Negro Educational Review, 29, 2, 80-86.
In this review, the author used studies which were based on
the standardized test scores of Black children between the ages of 5 and
18. Those children who had obtained acceptable scores on standardized tests
were used to identify the factors that seemed to influence the academic
success of Black children in elementary and secondary schools. Shade used
the following variables in her study: family status, structure, and interaction,
sex differences, teacher­p;pupil interactions, personality characteristics,
and intellectual performance patterns.
Shade, B. (1982). Afro-American cognitive style: a variable in school success?
Review of Educational Research, 52, 219-244.
Shade examined the effects of ethnicity with a culturally induced
lifestyle and perspective in the academic performances of Afro­p;Americans.
She discussed the cultural foundations of Afro­p;American thought, social
cognition, style of knowing, perceptual style, conceptual style, personality
style, and cognitive and cultural styles. This article contained an extensive
Sleeter, C. and C. Grant (1987). An analysis of multicultural education
in the United States. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 4, 421-444.
Valentine, C. A. (1975). Deficit, difference, and bicultural models of Afro-
American behavior. In Challenging the myths: The schools, the blacks, the
poor. (Harvard Educational Review: Serial No. 5) (pp. 1-21).
Anderson, B. J. (1990). Minorities and mathematics: The new frontier and
challenge in the nineties. The Journal of Negro Education, 59, 260-272.
Anderson, S. (1991, Winter). Uncovering the real history of mathematics.
School Voices, pp. 7,16.
In this article, the author explored the history of mathematics.
His intentions were to show that Europe should not be considered the only
"civilized center" of the world. Anderson's objectives were to
help students understand non-European founders and innovators of science
and mathematics, Europe's affiliation with third world mathematics and science,
and the basis of European capitalism.
Antonouris, G. (1988, September 30). Multicultural perspectives: Is math
really "culturally neutral"? The Times Educational Supplement,
Ascher, M. (1991). Ethnomathematics: A multicultural view of mathematical
ideas. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
In this beautifully written and illustrated book, the author
analyzed the mathematical ideas in traditional cultures involving numbers,
logic, spatial configuration, and the organization of these ideas into structures
and systems. (K.S.)
Ascher, M. and R. Ascher (1986). Ethnomathematics. History of Science,
Ascher and Ascher presented a definition and examples of what
they considered as ethnomathematics. For them, it was the mathematics of
non-literate people, people that had not developed a written system for
their language. They presented an argument against the outdated view of
non-literate peoples as primitive. They also argued that what we see as
ethnomathematics in a given culture is always colored by our current view
Bailey, P. and S. J. Shan (1991). Mathematics for a multicultural society,
underachievement and the national curriculum. Mathematics in School,
20, 2, 20-21.
This article was a reaction to an article written by James Tooley,
published in the same journal in 1990, arguing against multicultural mathematics
education. Part of Tooley's argument is that multiculturalist prescriptions
were irrelevant to levels of achievement in mathematics. The context for
the discussion was the design and implementation of a national curriculum
in England. Bailey and Shan claim that Tooley misunderstand what multucuralist
say and has a narrow view of achievement. The article explained that opponents
of multiculturalism tend to ignore that mathematics teachers are instrumental
in the transmission of values, attitudes, and beliefs. The authors say that
mathematics educators should ask: What is the nature of math? Whose maths
are we teaching? They conclude asking for culturally unbiased teaching and
Bauersfeld, H. Interaction, construction, and knowledge: Alternative perspectives
for mathematics education. Effective Mathematics Teaching, 27-46.
Berry, J. W. (1985). Learning mathematics in a second language: Some cross-
cultural issues. For the Learning of Mathematics, 5, 2, 18-23.
This article studied the relationship between learning mathematics
and the cognitive process influenced by one's mother tongue. Two types of
problems, A and B, were identified. "A" referred to the occurance
when the instructional language was not the student's mother tongue. While
"B" referred to the "distance" between the cognitive
structures natural to the student and those assumed by the teacher, curriculum
designer or teaching strategies and was believed to be more crucial and
required urgent awareness. The new model of curriculum began from a starting
point of assumptions about the learner's cognitive structures and took the
adoption of traditional mathematics as a long term goal.
Bishop, A. J. (1988). Mathematical enculturation. Boston: Kluwer
Bishop, A. J. (1988). Mathematics education in its cultural context. Educational
Studies of Mathematics, 19, 179-191.
The author presented the results of a series of analysis of
educational situations involving cultural issues. The author believed: 1)
that mathematics was a pan-cultural phenomenon; 2) the identification of
the associated value and its explanation relied on the mathematics educators
in the certain culture; and 3) the most significant aspects of mathematics
education in these issues were teacher education aspects because teachers
bore the task of both enculturation and acculturation, i.e. cultural preservation
Bishop, A. J. (1990). Mathematical power to the people. Harvard Educational
Review, 60, 357-369.
Bishop, A. J. (1990). Western mathematics: The secret weapon of cultural
imperialism. Race & Class, 32, 2, 51-65.
Mathematics, like many other school subjects, was imposed on
indigenous pupils in the colonial schools. According to Bishop, mathematics
continues to have the status of a culture-free phenomenon in the otherwise
turbulent waters of education and imperialism. Bishop identified three levels
of response to the cultural imperialism of Western mathematics: 1) increasing
interest in the study of ethnomathematics, 2) creating a greater awareness
of one's own culture, 3) re-examining the whole history of Western mathematics
itself. Bishop concluded his article claiming the resistance to Western
mathematics is growing, critical debate is informing theoretical development,
and research is increasing, in particular in those situations in which cultural
conflict is recognized.
Bishop, A. J. (1990). Why is geometry still culture-blind? Mathematics
Teaching, 131, 27-29.
The author complained about the lack attention to cultural issues
in a previously published special issue of Mathematics Teaching about geometry
and the national curriculum in England. He claimed that mathematics educators
should address the issues of the mathematics curriculum and diversity. Bishop
complained that geometry was portrayed in the National Curriculum as culture-blind
knowledge. He presented a number of recommendations for curriuclum developers.
Among them were the following: "show that no one culture or country
had, or has, a monopoly of mathematical ideas" and "show that
many cultures and societies have contributed to the mathematical knowledge
which the world now knows." Bishop complained that geometry is portrayed
in the National Curriculum as culture blind knowledge.
Bishop, A. J. and M. Nickson (1983). A review of research in mathematical
education: Part B research on the social context of mathematics. Atlantic
Highland, NJ: NFER-Nelson.
The basic theme of this book was the exploration of the social
context in which the teaching and learning of mathematics takes place. It
was concerned primarily with the research findings of many studies, done
both in the United States and in the United Kingdom, which were directly
or indirectly concerned with the issues and problems which surround mathematics
teaching today. The authors viewed these problems as constraints that were
both external and internal to the teacher. External constraints are those
imposed on the teacher by the institution, the pupils, parents, and society;
while the internal constraints related more to the teacher's own attitude
and knowledge and how he or she viewed the aims of education. Both constraints
have been discussed bringing out how they affect or influence mathematics
teaching and learning in the school.
Borba, M. C. (1990). Ethnomathematics and education. For the Learning
of Mathematics, 10, 1, 39-42.
Carraher, T. N. (1989). The cross-fertilization of research paradigms. Cognition
and Instruction, 6, 319-323.
Chevallard, Y. (1990). On mathematics and culture: Critical afterthoughts.
Educational Studies in Mathematics, 21, 3-27.
Cobb, P. (1989). Experiential, cognitive, and anthropological perspective
in mathematics education. For the Learning of Mathematics, 9, 2,
Connors, J. (1990). When mathematics meets anthropology: The need for interdisciplinbary
dialogue. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 21, 461-469.
D'Ambrosio, U. (1979). Mathematics and society: Some historical considerations
and implications. Philosphia Mathematica, 15/16, 106-126.
D'Ambrosio, U. (1984). Environmental influences. In R. Morris (Ed.), Studies
in mathematics education: The mathematical education of primary-school teachers
(pp. 29-46). Paris: UNESCO.
D'Ambrosio, U. (1985). Ethnomathematics and its place in the history and
pedagogy of mathematics. For the Learning of Mathematics, 5, 1, 44-48.
D'Ambrosio, U. (1985). Mathematics education in a cultural setting. International
Journal for Mathematics Education and Scientific Technology, 16, 4,
D'Ambrosio, U. (1986). Socio-cultural bases for mathematics education.
Paper presented at the 5th International Congress on Mathematics Education,
D'Ambrosio, U. (1989). A research program and a course in the history of
mathematics: Ethnomathematics. Historia Mathematica,6, 285-288.
D'Ambrosio, U. (1991). Ethnomathematics and its place in the histosry and
pedagogy of mathematics. In M. Harris (Ed.), Schools, Mathematics and
Work (pp. 15-25). Basingstoke: The Falmer Press.
Damarin, S. K. (1990). Teaching mathematics: A feminist perspective. In
T. J. Cooney and C. R. Hirsch (Eds.), Teaching and learning mathematics
in the 1990s, 1990 yearbook (pp. 144-151). Reston, VA: National Council
of Teachers of Mathematics.
Davis, G. (1990). Mathematics as culture: Facts and misconceptions.
Paper presented at the Mathematics and Science Education: Cultural Contexts
Conference, Geelong, Australia.
Davis, R. B. (1989). The culture of mathematics and the culture of schools.
Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 8, 143-160.
Dowling, P. (1991). The conceptualizing of mathematics: Towards a theoretical
map. In M. Harris (Eds.), Schools, Mathematics and Work (pp. 93-120).
Ernest, P. (1984). Teaching in Jamaica. Mathematics Teaching, 106,
Ernest, P. (1986). Social and political values. Mathematics Teaching,
Evans, J. (1989). The politics of numeracy. In P. Ernest (Eds.), Mathematics
teaching: The state of the art (pp. 203-220). London: Falmer.
Fasheh, M. (1982). Mathematics, culture, and authority. For the Learning
of Mathematics, 3, 2, 2-8.
Frankenstein, M. (1987). Critical mathematics education: An application
of Paulo Freire's epistemology. In I. Shor (Ed.), Freire for the classroom
(pp. 180-210). Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Grabiner, J. V. (1988). The centrality of mathematics in the history of
Western thought. Mathematics Magazine, 61, 4, 220-230.
Graham, B. (1985). Mathematics, culture, and curriculum. Australia:
School of Education Deakin University.
The author explored current research in the areas of mainstream,
cross-cultural and Aboriginal mathematics education and schooling and reflected
on these findings in relation to the provision of more meaningful mathematics
education for Aboriginal children. The review highlighted several features
that should be inherited in any approach to the teaching of the mathematical-tecnoogical
culture (or MT culture) in Aboriginal schools. They were the issues of:
aboriginality, time, spatial awareness, experiences, language, bilingualism,
ethnomathematics, and negotiation. The key question for educators to address
was: "If Aboriginal people really want a mathematical education for
their children have we the knowledge and flexibility to work with them to
achieve that goal?" One hundred research papers and books were listed
in the bibliography, giving an extensive reference list for further exploration
of this topic.
Graham, B. (1988). Mathematical education and Aboriginal children. Educational
Studies in Mathematics, 19, 119-135.
The school mathematics of Western societies are a component
of what Alan Bishop described as the widely accepted mathematico-technological
(MT) culture. The author pointed out how Aboriginal cultural features often
conflict with current approaches to teaching of the MT culture. Key factors
which should be included in any attempts to teach MT culture to Aboriginal
children. These were more purposeful experiences, maintaining their Aboriginality,
providing more time for learning, making use of their existing spatial orientation,
allowing talk in their native language, considering the mathematical knowledge
they bring with them, and negotiating with students, parents and teachers
the role of MT culture in the mathematical education of Aboriginal children.
An extensive reference list provided.
Griffin, J. B. (1990). Developing more minority mathematicians and scientists:
A new approach. The Journal of Negro Education, 59, 424-438.
Hannan, A. (1988). Should mathematics be multicultural? Mathematics in
the School, 17, 1, 28-30.
Harris, M. (Ed.). (1991). Schools, mathematics and work. London:
Harris, P. (1984). The relevance of primary school mathematics in tribal
aboriginal communities. In P. Damerow, M. E. Dunkley, B. F. Nebres and B.
Werry (Eds.), Mathematics for All (pp. 96-100). Paris: UNESCO.
Harris, P. (1989). Cross-cultural contexts of mathematics education. In
N. F. Ellerton and M. A. Clements (Eds.), School mathematics: The challenge
to change (pp. 82-95). Geelong: Deakin University.
The author used the situation of students in remote Aboriginal
communities in the Northern territory of Australia to exemplify how historical,
socio-political, and linguistic, as well as cultural and philosophical contexts
of the classroom may inhibit communication and development of mathematical
ideas. Harris emphasized the differences in teaching mathematics in English
to children of another Indo-European language and teaching mathematics in
English to children with a radically different language from English. The
author offered "six pointers" related to cross-cultural teaching
for consideration by teachers and others interested in mathematics education.
Hartz, V. (1990). Mathematics and democracy: A real problem. Mathematics
Teaching, 133, 3-7.
Hartz examimed the concept of democratic competence and the
role that mathematics and its teaching might play in the development of
such competence. He pointed out that there are two different arguments for
democratisation: the social and the pedagogical. The discussion included
a critique of the structural mathematics teaching of the sixties. Hartz
ended his article asking teachers: "Can we build a mathematics curriculum
which gives real democracy in materials and situations and real democracy
in classrooms where we are responsible for so much of the lives of our pupils?"
Hunting, R. and H. Whitely (1983). Mathematics, prior knowledge, and the
Australian aborigine. In M. E. R. G. o. Australia (Ed.), Research in
Mathematics Education in Australia (pp. 13-24). Sydney: The Author.
Johnson, M. L. (1984). Blacks in mathematics: A status report. Journal
for Research in Mathematics Education, 15, 145-153.
Joseph, G. (1987). Foundations of Eurocentrism in mathematics. Schools,
Mathematics and Work, 28, 3, 13-28.
Joseph, G. (1991). The crest of the peacock: Non-European roots of mathematics.
London: I.B. Tauris.
Kamii, M. (1990). Opening the algebra gate: Removing obstacles to succes
in college preparation mathematics courses. The Journal of Negro Education,
Keitel, C. (1986). Cultural premises and presupositions in psychology
of mathematics education. Plenary lecture presented at the Tenth International
Conference of Psychology of Mathematics Education. London, England.
Keitel, C. (1987). What are the goals of mathematics for all? Journal
of Curriculum Studies, 19, 203-217.
The paper was about mathematics for all and the author was convinced
that it is possible. She felt that mathematics learning cannot be different
for students with different professional perspectives. It may differ, but
only in its extension and in individual inclinations. She concluded her
paper by pointing out that besides considering that mathematics should be
learned as an applied discipline it should also be viewed in an applied
Keitel, C., P. Damerow, A. Bishop and P. Gerdes (1988). Mathematics,
education, and society. Paper presented at the 6th International Congress
on Mathematics Education, Paris.
This document is the No. 35 of the Science and Technology Education
Document Series published by UNESCO. It contains reports and papers presented
in the Fifth Day Special Programme on "Mathematics, Education, and
Society" celebrated at ICME-6 in Budapest, Hungary, in 1988. We included
this document in this section because most of the articles presented theoretical
perspectives and frameworks, but some of them are research reports delaing
with issues such as mathematics education and bilingualism, ethnomathematics,
power relations in the mathematics classroom, and so on. This document presented
a complete overview of the different perspectives within the field of mathematics
education concerned with the teaching and learning of mathematics and their
connections with culture, language, ethnicity, and social class.
Kenschaft, P. (1987). Black men and women in mathematical research. Journal
of Black Studies, 18, 170-190.
Kenschaft, P. (1990). Recruitment and retention of students in undergraduate
mathematics. The College Mathematics Journal, 21, 294-301.
Keyser, C. J. (1947). Mathematics as a cultural clue. New York: Scripta
Lea, H. (1987). Traditional mathematics in Botswana. Mathematics Teaching,
For thousands of years people did mathematics knowingly or unknowingly,
and people in Botswana were no exception. Lea gave a clear idea of how traditional
mathematics operated in the remote rural areas in Botswana. The article
drew on the investigation carried out by graduate students on the people
in rural areas. It examined the concepts of number and counting, the ways
in which these rural people went about their day-to-day activities of addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division of numbers. Concepts of measurement,
weight, and time were all highlighted in detail as well.
Lumpkin, B. (1989). Africa in the mainstream of mathematics history. In
van Sertima (Ed.), Blacks in science: Ancient and modern (pp. 100-109).
London: Transaction Books.
Mandler, G. (1989). Affect and learning: Causes and consequences of emotional
interactions. In D. B. McLeod and V. M. Adams (Eds.), Affect and mathematical
problem solving: A new perspective (pp. 3-19). New York: Springer-Verlag.
The purpose of this paper was to present the author's view on
the learning process as it generates discrepancies and interruptions­p;mainly
in the production of errors and unexpected successes, as well as in values
(the evaluative reactions) that may arise in the course of the learning
process. Mandler stated his view by presenting a brief outline of his constructivist
view of emotion, and discussing some possible applications of his notions
about emotion to problem solving and learning. Within his discussion he
stressed a microanalytic approach and asked questions about the uses of
affect and the specific effect of human error.
Maori, E. (1991). To infinity and beyond: A cultural history of the infinite.
McLeod, D. B. (1989). The role of affect in mathematical problem solving.
In D. B. McLeod and V. M. Adams (Eds.), Affect and mathematical problem
solving: A new perspective (pp. 20-36). New York: Springer-Verlag.
The purpose of this paper was to propose a theoretical framework
for investigating the affective factors that help or hinder performance
in mathematical problem solving. In motivating a need for this framework,
McLeod summarized how affect influences several major categories of the
mathematical problem solving process. These processes included the ability
to retrieve information from the long­p;term memory, representational
styles of solvers, the roles of the solvers' conscious and unconscious mental
processes, the role of metacognition (knowledge about cognition and the
regulation of cognition), and the role of automaticity. In addition, McLeod
stated that affective influences on problem solving would vary according
to the kind of heuristic strategy that the problem required and according
to the phases through which the problem solver moved in addressing the problem.
Moses, R. P., M. Kamii, S. M. Swap and J. Howaard (1989). The Algebra Project:
Organizing in the Spirit of Ella. Harvard Educational Review, 59, 4,
National Research Council (1989). Everybody counts: A report to the nation
on the future of mathematics education. Washington, DC: National Academy
Nebres, B. F. The shape of school mathematics in the 1990s: A report
on the ICMI study on school mathematics in the 1990s. Ateneo de Manila.
Nebres, B. F. (1983). Problems of mathematical education in and for changing
societies--Problems in Southeast Asian countries. In Tokyo:
Nebres, B. F. (1984). The problem of universal mathematics education
in developing countries. .
The author looks at various papers that explore the problems
inherent in universal mathematics education programs. He subscribes to views
such as: the canonical school mathematics for mathematics were designed
for a European elite and so there are serious adjustment problems when it
is introduced into the mass educational system of a developing country.
He contends that the relationship between mathematics and culture is the
first and maybe the most general question which arises when mathematics
for all is taken as a program. He concludes his paper by proposing two tasks:
One is in the area of bringing about a cultural shift in developing countries.
The second is a more specific task of working towards a better integration
between universal mathematical education and the outside world to which
students from developing countries will go.
Nickson, M. (1989). What is multicultural mathematics? In P. Ernest (Ed.),
Mathematics teaching: The state of the art (pp. 236-246). London:
Noss, R. (1988). The computer as a cultural influence in mathematical learning.
Educational Studies in Mathematics, 19, 251-268.
Philp, H. (1973). Mathematical education in developing countries--Some problems
of teaching and learning. In A. G. Howson (Ed.), Developments in mathematical
education (pp. 154-180). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pool, P. (1990). Blinded by culture. Mathematics Teaching, 133, 12-14.
Pool argued that mathematics educators should present exactly
what they are looking for with multicultural mathematics education before
they rush into a celebration of mathematical diversity. The author questioned
the idea of treating the pupils as undifferentiated members of a cultural
group ignoring their individuality. Pool used Whorf's hypothesis to criticize
some of the claims about the development of mathematical ideas in non-Western
Powell, L. (1990). Factors associated with the underrepresentation of African
Americans in mathematics and science. The Journal of Negro Education,
Rendón, L. I. and E. M. Triana (1989). Making mathematics and
science work for Hispanics. Washington, DC: American Association for
the Advancement of Science.
Saxe, G. B. (1989). Transfer of learning across cultural practices. Cognition
and Instruction, 6, 325-330.
Saxe, G. B. and J. Posner (1983). The development of numerical cognition:
Cross- cultural perspectives. In H. Ginsburg (Ed.), The development of
mathematical thinking (pp. 291-315). New York: Academic.
Schindler, D. E. and D. M. Davison (1985). Language, culture, and the mathematics
concepts of American Indian learners. Journal of American Indian Education,
24, 3, 27-34.
This article reports the results of a review of current literature
realted to the perceived utility of mathematics and technical language development
in the Crow Indian language. The authors state that many Indian languages
have no counterparts to common mathematical words in English, such as multiplication
and division. They suggest that teachers of Crow speaking children need
to emphasize the interrelationship of mathematics teams and concepts in
English and Crow. The article inlcuded mathematics history related to American
Indians, and traditional uses of mathematics among American Indian tribes.
Secada, W. and M. Meyer (1989). Needed: an agenda for equity in mathematics
education. Peabody Journal of Education, 66, 2, .
Shirley, L. (1986). Ethnomathematics for history in the Third World. Newsletter
of the International Study Group on the Relations between History and Pedagogy
of Mathematics, 13, 2-3.
Sizer, W. S. (1991). Mathematical notions in preliterate societies. The
Mathematical Intelligencer, 13, 4, 53-60.
Skovsmose, O. (1990). Mathematical education and democracy. Educational
Studies in Mathematics, 21, 109-128.
The author discussed the role and form mathematics education
can and should take as a tool of democratization. A social argument of democratization
was given which focused on mathematics applications which may have a "society-shaping"
function. He also described a pedagogical argument of democratization which
stated that our teaching of mathematics may implant servile attitudes in
students to technological questions in our society, and that the teaching-learning
situation should be based on democratic dialogue between student and teacher.
Mellin-Olsen pointed out that these arguments may be in conflict, however,
and asked the question about whether a mathematics curriculum could have
been developed that is both open and empowering, and instill democratic
Stanic, G. M. A. (1989). Social inequality, cultural discontinuity, and
equity in school mathematics. Peabody Journal of Education, 66, 2,
Stigler, J. W. and R. Baranes (1988). Culture and mathematics learning.
In E. Z. Rothkopf (Ed.), Review of research in education (pp. 253-306).
Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Swadener, M. and R. Soedjadi (1988). Values, mathematics education, and
the task of developing pupils' personalities: An Indonesian perspective.
Educational Studies in Mathematics, 19, 193-208.
Tooley, J. (1990). Multicultural mathematics, underachievement and the national
curriculum. Mathematics in School, 19, 2, 10-11.
van Sertima, I. (1989). The lost science of Africa: An overview. In I. van
Sertima (Ed.), Blacks in science: Ancient and modern (pp. 7-26).
London: Transaction Books.
Walkerdine, V. (1990). Difference, cognition, and mathematics education.
Paper presented at the 14th International Meeting of the International Group
for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Mexico.
Washburn, D. K. and D. W. Crowe (1988). Symmetries of culture: Theory
and practice of plane pattern analysis. Seattle: University of Washington
The authors, an anthropologist and a mathematician, show how
patterns from many cultures can be classified according to the symmetries
which generate them. Flow charts enable one to determine the specific symmetry
class of a pattern. Lavish black and white illustrations and explanatory
diagrams accompany the text. (K.S.)
Watson, H. (1990). Investigating the social foundations of mathematics:
Natural number in culturally diverse forms. Social Studies of Science,
Weissglass, J. (in press). Reaching students who reject school: A need for
strategy. , , .
An interpretation of Mellin-Olsen's book as well as a call for
a strategy that would increase the likelihood of school mathematics engaging
students who reject school.
White, L. A. (1947). The locus of mathematical reality: An anthropological
footnote. Philosophy of Science, 15, 289-303.
Woodrow, D. (1984). Cultural impacts on children learning mathematics. Mathematics
in School, 13, 5, 5-7.
Woodrow, D. (1989). Multicultural and anti-racist mathematics teaching.
In P. Ernest (Ed.), Mathematics teaching: The state of the art (pp.
229-235). London: Falmer.
Zaslavsky, C. (1975). What is math for? Urban Review, 8, 232-240.
The author discusses the dissonance between school mathematics
and the mathematical practices that students encounter in their real lives,
both in the United States and in Africa. She discusses the significance
of cultural differences in attempting to introduce a uniform curriculum
in vastly different societies, and suggests ways of integrating cultural
practices into mathematics curriculum at several levels. (K.S.)
Anderson, S. E. (1990). Worldmath curriculum: Fighting eurocentrism in mathematics.
The Journal of Negro Education, 59, 348-359.
Antonouris, G. and L. Sparrow (1989). Primary mathematics in a multicultural
society. Mathematics Teaching, 127, 40-43.
Ascher, M. and R. Ascher (1971/72). Numbers and relations from ancient Andean
quipus. Archives for History of Exact Sciences, 8, 288-299.
Ascher and Ascher pointed out that not enough attention is devoted
to developments in mathematics in ancient America. They claim we need to
overcome this restrictive frame and bias in order to appreciate the background
of human intellectual accomplishments. Specifically, the authors were interested
in the quipu, an artifact invented by the Incas in Perú. Quipus were
colored cords with knots tied in them for recording numerical and relational
information. Ascher and Ascher did not address educational issues in this
paper, but the information provided could be helpful in designing mathematical
activities and a history of mathematics course that includes groups or people
who are traditionally excluded.
Beane, D. B. (1990). Say YES to a youngters' furture: A model for home,
school, and community partnership. The Journal of Negro Education, 59,
Brenner, M. (1985). The practice of arithmetic in Liberian schools. Anthropology
and Education Quarterly, 16, 3, 177-186.
Brown, T. (1984). Teaching in Dominica. Anthropology, 108, 30-31.
Brown, T. (1987). A social context for mathematical statements. Mathematics
Teaching, 124, 10-13.
Burt, G. (1990). Doing critical cultural and ideological techonolgy. Educational
Studies in Mathematics, 21, 289-298.
Clarke, D. (no date). The social context of mathematics learning.
Unpublished paper. Institute of Catholic University, Oakleigh, Victoria.
Coates, D. and P. McGowan (1987). Multicultural contexts. Mathematics
Teaching, 118, 27.
Cotton, A. (1990). Anti-racist mathematics teaching and the national curriculum.
Mathematics Teaching, 132, 22-26.
Crawford, K. (1984). Bicultural teacher training in mathematics education
for aboriginal trainees from traditional communities. In P. Damerow, M.
E. Dunkley, B. F. Nebres and B. Werry (Eds.), Mathematics for all (pp.
101-108). Paris: UNESCO.
Crowe, D. W. (1987). Symmetry rigid motions and patterns. The UMAP Journal,
8, 3, 207-236.
Cuevas, G. (1990). Increasing the achievement and participation of language
minority students in mathematics education. National Council of Teachers
Dahlberg, C. (1989). Alternative course of mathematics. The ALM Project.
School Research Newsletter, March, .
Davison, D. M. (1992). Strategies for teaching mathematics to the American
Indian student. In J. Reyhner (Ed.), Teaching the American Indian student
(pp. 241-250). Norman, OK: Univeristy of Oklahoma.
Davison, D. M. (1992). Teaching mathematics to American Indian students:
An ethnomathematics perspective. In B. Barton (Ed.), Indigenous peoples
and mathematics education (pp. 23-30). Auckland, NZ: Auckland College
Dawe, L. (1986). Teaching and learning mathematics in a multicultural classroom--Guidelines
for teachers. The Australian Mathematics Teacher, 42, 1, 8-13.
Dawe, L. (1989). Mathematics, education and society: Mathematics teaching
and learning in village schools in the South Pacific. The Australian
Mathematics Teacher, 45, 1, 12-13.
Dyson, D. (1986). Multicultural approach. In R. K. Arora and C. G. Duncan
(Eds.), Multicultural education (pp. 117-134). London: Routledge
El-Said, I., and A. Parman (1976). Geometric concepts in Islamic art.
Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour.
Escalante, J., and J. Dirmann (1990). The Jaime Escalante math program.
The Journal of Negro Education, 59, 407-423.
Ford Foundation (1982). Minorities and mathematics. New York: Ford
Frankenstein, M. (1983). Taking the numb out of numbers: Teaching radical
math. Science for the People, 12-17.
Frankenstein, M. (1989). Relearning mathematics: A different third R-Radical
math. London: Free Association.
Frankenstein's mathematics textbook differs a great deal from
traditional mathematics texts since it includes not only mathematical content
but also approaches to learning mathematics, a social and political context
for learning mathematics, and numerous historical insights. The style of
the book provides strong support for the idea that mathematics is a human
endeavor and mathematics can be a powerful tool for all people. The mathematical
topics included integers, rational numbers, numerical operations, and variables.
The author "situates the teaching of mathemaics within a rationale
that links schooling to the wider considerations of citizenship and social
Frankenstein, M. (1990). Incorporating race, class, and gender issues into
a critical mathematical literacy curriculum. The Journal of Negro Education,
Frankenstein, M., and A. B. Powell (1989). Mathematics education and society:
Empowering non-traditional students. In C. Keitel (Eds.), Mathematics,
Education, and Society (pp. 157-159). Paris: UNESCO.
Fraser, B. J., J. A. Malone, and J. M. Neale (1989). Assessing and improving
the psychosocial environment of mathematics classrooms. Journal for Research
in Mathematics Education, 20, 191-201.
This is a paper on research on classroom environment, focusing
on how mathematics teachers might apply ideas from research in guiding practical
improvements in mathematics classrooms. In their study, use was made of
a new short form of My Class Inventory (MCI). Which was found to be valid
instrument. They then asked a teacher to use the MCI in a systematics attempts
to improve a mathematics class. The results were promising. The authors
conclude their paper with optimism and they quote Fraser and Fisher and
write, "In recent studies of person-environment fit, students were
found to achieve better when there was a higher congruence between the actual
classroom environment and that preferred by the students".
Garcia, J. (1988). Minority participation in elementary science and mathematics.
Education and Society, 1, 3, 21-23.
Gerdes, P. (1985). Conditions and strategies for emancipatory mathematics
education in underdeveloped countries. For the Learning of Mathematics,
5, 1, 15-20.
Gerdes, P. (1988). On culture, geometrical thinking and mathematics education.
Educational Studies in Mathematics, 19, 137-162.
Gerdes, P. (1988). On possible uses of traditional Angolan sand drawings
in the mathematics classroom. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 19,
Gerdes, P. (1988). A widespread decorative motif and the Pythagorean theorem.
For the Learning of Mathematics, 8, 1-39.
Gerdes, P. (1990). On mathematical elements in the Tchokwe "sona"
tradition. For the Learning of Mathematics, 10(1), 31-34.
Gilbert, D. (1984). Multicultural mathematics. In M. Straker-Weds (Ed.),
Education for a multicultural society (pp. 97-107). London: Bell
Harris, M. (1987). An example of traditional women's work as a mathematics
resource. For the Learning of Mathematics, 7(3), 26-28.
Hemmings, R. (1984). Mathematics. In A. Craft and G. Bardell (Eds.), Curriculum
opportunities in a multicultural society (pp. 113-131). New York: Harper
Hudson, B. (1987). Global and multicultural issues. Mathematics Teaching,
Hudson, B. (1987). Multicultural mathematics. Mathematics in School,
This article was in part the result of research in which researchers
developed some materials, then trial-tested and evaluated these materials
for the teaching of mathematics from a global and multicultural perspective.
The thesis used in developing the materials was that the issue of global
inequality could be explored while also involving meaningful mathematical
Jones, L. (1989). Mathematics and Islamic art. Mathematics in School,
Joseph, G. (1984, October 5). The multicultural dimension. The Times
Educational Supplement, 45-46.
Joseph, G. (1985, October 11). An historical perspective. The Times Educational
Joseph, G. (1986). A non-Eurocentric approach to school mathematics. Multicultural
Teaching, 4(2), 14-15.
Joseph, G. (1989, May 5). Turning the tables. The Times Educational Supplement.
Krause, M. C. (1983). Multicultural mathematics materials. Reston,
VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Masingila, J. O. (1993). Learning from mathematics practice in out-of-school
situations. For the Learning of Mathematics, 13 (2), 18-22.
Mellin-Olsen, S. (1987). The politics of mathematics education. Boston:
Moore, C. G. (1988). The implications of string figures fro American Indian
mathematics education. Journal of American Indian Education, 28(2), 16-26.
Moore presented evidence to support his hypothesis that preliterate
tribes people were capable of mathematical thought as exhibited thorugh
their invention and mastery of string art figures. This common activity
did possessed elements of mathematical thought, namely, logic and intuition,
analysis and synthesis, and generality and individuality, in accord with
a definition of mathematics by Courant and Robbins. This information may
impact American Indian students' conception of being mathematically disadvantaged
when among Anglo students.
Moore, C. G. (1988). Mathematics-like principles inferred from the petroglyhps.
Journal of American Indian Education, 27(2), 30-36.
Moore indentified iteration, recursion, similitude, tiling,
and symmetry as principals of mathematics-like thought used by petroglyph
carvers. He supported his claim with examples of carvings which illustrate
each principal. Concluded with several suggestions for classroom activities.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1984). Handbook for conducting
equity activities in mathematics education. Reston, VA: The Author.
Materials in this handbook are the result of work of supervisors,
administrators, teachers, counselors, and teacher-educators who attended
5 conferences organized by the NCTM in Florida, New Mexico, Maryland, and
Minnesota. They included suggestions for conducting mathematics equity surveys,
designing and organizing equity conferences and other teacher in-service
activities, developinhg networking strategies, and developing curriculum
and instructional strategies which deal with equity issues in mathematics.
Also included is a resource list of mathematics equity materials and an
appendix with papers that were presented at the conferences on underepresented
groups in mathematics.
Newnham, J. and S. Watts (1984). Developing a multicultural science curriculum.
In M. Straker-Weds (Ed.), Education for a multicultural society (pp.
97-107). London: Bell & Hyman.
The authors outlined their work in revising the lower school
science curriculum of a school system to take into account today's multicultural
society. Their sources for this project were the current curriculum, suggestions
from students, and units from the Third World Science Project. The authors'
rough draft of the revised curriculum attempted to eliminate gender and
ethnic biases and stereotypes by including illustrations from various cultures,
not just the European and North American cultures. The units described in
this article allowed students to read and/or write about the topic being
studied in real world situations in order to make the material more relevant.
Patterson, R. (1990). Helping minority students with limited mathematics
skills to succeed. Black Issues in Higher Education, 7, 1, 88.
Presmeg, N. C. (1989). Visualization in multicultural mathematics classrooms.
Focus on the Learning Problems in Mathematics, 11(1-2), 17-24.
Reyes, L. H. (1980). Attitudes and mathematics. In M. M. Lindquist (Ed.),
Selected issues in mathematics education (pp. 161-184). Evanston,
IL: National Society for the Study of Education and National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics.
Secada, W. G. (1990). The challenges of a changing world for mathematics
education. In T. J. Cooney and C. R. Hirsch (Eds.), Teaching and learning
mathematics in the 1990s. NCTM 1990 Yearbook (pp. 135-143). Reston,
VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Silva, C. M. and R. P. Moses (1990). The Algebra Project: Making middle
school mathematics count. The Journal of Negro Education, 59, 375-391.
Stanfield-Potworowsky, J. (1988). Socializing mathematics. Mathematics
Teaching, 125, 3-8.
This is a copy of an Association of Teachers of Mathematics,
in England, closing lecture in 1988 by the author. Using many anecdotes
and examples, the author makes the point that mathematics is created in
social settings and the directions of its development is socially determined.
The claim is made that the interpretation of mathematics development (history
books) was laden with ideological stances, political influences, and racial
Taylor, L., E. Stevens, J. J. Peregoy, and B. Bath (1991). American Indians,
mathematical attitudes, and the Standards. The Arithmetic Teacher, 38(6),
Tobias, S. (1978). Overcoming math anxiety. New York: Norton.
In this book, Tobias has examined the myths surrounding mathematics.
She reported on intervention techniques that she tried out in an experimental
clinic at her university. It is primarily a discussion of how intimidation,
myth, misunderstanding, and missed opportunities have affected a large proportion
of the population. The principal purpose for writing the book was to convince
women and men that their fear of mathematics is the result and not the cause
of their negative experiences with mathematics, and to encourage them to
give themselves one more chance.
Whitcombe, A. and M. Donaldson (1988). Shongo networks: A multicultural
theme in the classroom. Mathematics in School, 17(5), 34-38.
Yao, E. L. (1984). The infusion of multicultural teaching in the classroom.
Action in Teacher Education, 6(3), 43-48.
Zaslavsky, C. (1970). Black African traditional mathematics. Mathematics
Teacher, 63, 345-356.
Zaslavsky, C. (1973). Mathematics in the study of African culture. Arithmetic
Teacher, 20, 532-535.
In this short article, the author explored some mathematical
ideas developed in Africa outside of ancient Egypt. She claimed that history-of-mathematics
books do not inlcude African mathematics leaving the impression that nothing
had been accomplished in that part of the World. The main purpose of the
article was to present some suggestions for the incorporation of mathematical
ideas in the study of African culture, e.g. as a part of a total learning
experience. Mathematical ideas related to weaving, knots, networks, divination,
gambling, measuring, currency, and gaming were presented.
Zaslavsky, C. (1975). African network patterns. Mathematics Teaching,
Zaslavsky, C. (1979). Symmetry and other mathematical concepts in African
life. In S. Sharron (Ed.), Applications in school mathematics (pp.
82-95). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Zaslavsky, C. (1981). Networks--New York subways, a piece of string, and
African traditions. The Arithmetic Teacher, 29, 42-47.
Zaslavsky, C. (1983). Essay review of literature on African-American mathematicians.
Historia Mathematica, 10, 105-115.
The author is concerned with Blacks and their relationship with
mathematics. She reported the accomplishments of several Black mathematicians,
as well as the prejudicies they had experienced within the field of mathematics.
Zaslavsky, C. (1985). Bringing the world into the math class. Curriculum
Review, 24(3), 63-65.
The author presented ways of integrating the real-world as well
as other school subjects into the mathematics curriculum. Investigating
the various numeration systems, the unique styles of housing, and games
from different cultures encouraged students to analyze their own concepts
of mathematics. Each of these activities helped students to make meaningful
connections between the mathematics taught in the classroom and real-life
situations, in addition to exposing students to other cultures.
Zaslavsky, C. (1987). Math comes alive: Activities from many cultures.
Portland, ME: Weston.
Zaslavsky, C. (1989). People who live in round houses. TheArithmetic
Zaslavsky, C. (1990). Symmetry in American folk art. The Arithmetic Teacher,
In this paper the author offers a series of activities with
symmetrical designs and repeated patterns for the mathematics classroom.
Ideas are taken from quilt patterns and Navajo rugs, and historical notes
are included. The author tries to help students to become aware of the role
of mathematics in society, realize that mathematics is a dynamic, growing,
and changing human activity, and to learn to appreciate other cultures.
Zaslavsky, C. (1991). Multicultural mathematics education for the middle
grades. The Arithmetic Teacher, 38(6), 8-13.
Zaslavsky, C. (1991). World cultures in the mathematics class. For the
Learning of Mathematics, 11(2), 32-36.
The author argued for the importance of incorporating a cultural
perspective into the curriculum. She discussed topics such as numbers and
numeration, design and pattern, architecture, and games of chance and skill.
Zaslavsky, C. (1993). Multicultural mathematics: Interdisciplinary cooperative
larning activities. Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch Publishers.
Zaslavsky, C. (1993). Multicultural mathematics: One road to the goal of
mathematics for all. In G. Cuevas and M. Driscoll (Eds.), Reaching All
Students with Mathematics (pp. 45-55). Reston, VA: National Council
of Teachers of Mathematics.
Anick, C. M., T. P. Carpenter, and C. Smith (1981). Minorities and mathematics:
Results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Mathematics
Teacher, 74, 560-566.
This paper presents results from the National Assessment of
Educational Progress (mathematics assessment) involving 70,000 9-, 13- and
17-year-olds during the 1977-1978 school year. This article focuses on the
assessment results for Blacks and Hispanics. Results indicated their performance
was significantly below the national average for each age group assessed
and they took less mathematics in high school, but most Black students liked
mathematics, thought it was important, and indicated a greater desire than
their peers to take more mathematics.
Ascher, M. (1988). Graphs in cultures: A study in ethnomathematics. Historia
Mathematica, 15, 201-227.
The author examined in great detail the significance of continous
figure tracing among the peoples of the Malekula island in Oceania. She
has noted that, within various traditions in Oceania, figures drawn depict
different cultural meanings--myths that explain the origin of death, flora,
and fauna--but implicit in them are remarkable mathematical ideas in geometry,
topology, and algebraic algorithms. She gave examples of simple closed curves
and regular graphs--graphs having all vertices of the same degree. With
the regular graphs they developed algebraic skills based on succient statements
of the drawing procedures. On the whole, the study provided a clear understanding
of some graph theoretic considerations of other peoples whose culture may
be regarded as different from the Western culture.
Ascher, M. (1988). Graphs in culture (II): A study in ethnomathematics.
Archives for History of Exact Sciences, 39, 75-95.
Ascher, M. (1990). A river-crossing problem in cross-cultural perspective.
Mathematics Magazine, 63, 26-29.
The author presented the very popular puzzle in which a person
must ferry across a river a wolf, a goat, and a head of cabbage. The person
has a boat that can carry only him/her and one other thing. African versions
and Western versions of this puzzle are presented and analyzed. The author
claimed that the existence and enjoyment of this puzzle in different cultures
showed that interest in logic was not the exclusive province of any one
culture or subculture, and that there was a pan-human concern for mathematical
ideas. She concluded by pointing out that the case presented in this paper
"is but one of the many examples that demonstrate that mathematical
ideas are of concern in traditional non-Western cultures as well as in the
Ascher, M. and R. Ascher (1981). Code of the quipu: A study in media,
mathematics, and culture. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Awartani, M. and M. W. Gray (1989). Cultural influences on sex differentials
in mathematics aptitude and achievement. International Journal of Mathematics
Education in Science and Technology, 20, 317-320.
Awartani and Gray discussed the results of mathematics testing
of 14 year olds and college freshmen in the West Bank. In testing the 14
year olds they found more substantial differences among students from different
socioeconomic backgrounds than between males and females from the same background.
With the college students there was no significant difference in the test
scores of men and women. They discussed possible reasons for their findings
and lastly encouraged further research specifically on how sex differences
in mathematics achievement depend on cultural background and socioeconomic
Barnes, R. H. (1982). Number and number use in Kédang, Indonesia.
Bell, G. (Ed.). (1993). Asian Perspectives on Mathematics Education.
Lismore: The Northern Rivers Mathematical Association.
Bishop, A. J. (1985). The social construction of meaning - A significant
development for mathematics? For the Learning of Mathematics, 5(1),
In this article, the author raised a concept of "social
construction" aimed at the better understanding of teaching and learning
in the classroom. The author believed that every classroom was unique in
its identity, people, atmosphere, events, pleasure, crisis, and history.
Every person constructs his/her own mathematics knowledge through this uniqueness.
He proposed a new orientation for mathematics education which viewed mathematics
classroom teaching as controlling the organization and dynamics of the classroom
for the purpose of sharing and developing mathematics meaning. The key was
sharing. Therefore, the analysis of "social construction" focused
on: 1) mathematics activities; 2) communication (pupil to pupil, pupil to
teacher, and teacher to pupil); and 3) negotiation (goal-directed interaction
guided by the teacher), and thus offered mathematics educators rich avenues
Bradley, C. (1984). Issues in mathematics education for Native Americans
and directions for research. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,
Brassell, A., S. Petry and D. M. Brooks (1980). Ability grouping, mathematics
achievement, and pupil attitudes toward mathematics. Journal for Research
in Mathematics Education, 11, 22-28.
Brush, L. R. (1980). Encouraging girls in mathematics: The problem and
the solution. Cambridge, MA: Abt. Books.
This book included the major findings of a three-year longitudinal
study of 1,500 students in 6th through 12th grades in three New England
schools. The findings concerned changes in students' ideas about mathematics,
and their plans for mathematical involvement, negative attitudes of girls,
and students' perceptions of the usefulness of mathematics. The author proposed
interesting remedial strategies for the problems identified in the study.
Burton, G. M. (1984). Revealing images. School Science and Mathematics,
Carraher, T. N. (1986). From drawings to buildings working with mathematical
scales. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 9, 527-544.
Carraher, T. N., D. W. Carraher, and A. D. Schliemann (1984). Can mathematics
teachers teach proportions? In P. Damerow, M. E. Dunkley, B. F. Nebres and
B. Werry (Eds.), Mathematics for all (pp. 87-89). Paris: UNESCO.
Carraher, T. N., D. W. Carraher, and A. D. Schliemann (1984). Having feel
for the calculations. In P. Damerow, M. E. Dunkley, B. F. Nebres and B.
Werry (Eds.), Mathematics for all. Paris: UNESCO.
Carraher, T. N., D. W. Carraher, and A. D. Schliemann (1985). Mathematics
in the streets and in the schools. British Journal of Developmental Psychology,
Carraher, T. N., D. W. Carraher and A. D. Schliemann (1987). Written and
oral mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 18,
Cheek, H. N. (1984). Increasing the participation of Native Americans in
mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 15, 107-113.
Cheung, K. C. (1988). Outcomes of schooling: Mathematics achievement and
attitudes towards mathematics learning in Hong Kong. Educational Studies
in Mathematics, 19, 209-220.
Clements, M. A. (1989). Mathematics for the minority. Victoria: Deakin
Closs, M. P. (Ed.). (1986). Native American mathematics. Austin,
TX: University of Texas Press.
Cobb, P. (1986). Contexts, goals, beliefs, and learning mathematics. For
the Learning of Mathematics, 6(2), 2-9.
This is a research report on the hypothesis that students reorganize
their beliefs about mathematics to resolve problems that are primarily social
rather than mathematical in origin. Cobb's contention is that cognition
is necessarily contextually bounded. He concludes that many of the problematic
situations that precipitate children's reorganization of their beliefs about
mathematics are social rather than mathematical in origin.
Cocking, R. R. and J. P. Mestre (1988). Linguistic and cultural influences
on learning mathematics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
The authors of this book were particularly concerned with the
nature of cultural and linguistic influences on mathematics learning. Understanding
the nature of mathematics performance in the schools requires much more
than what cognitive researcher offers. Together with the explanations offered
by cognitive research are important factors which affect mathematics performance.
In addition cognitive issues, mathematics performance is influenced by bilingualism,
gender, culture, class, affect, motivation, teacher competence, the availability
of sound educational opportunities and the implemented curriculum (as opposed
to the intended curriculum). Each of these factors may affect mathematics
learning singly or as a part of a collection of all the factors.
Cole, M. and P. Griffin (1987). Contextual factors in education: Improving
science and mathematics for minorities and women. Madison, WI: Wisconsin
Center for Educational Research.
Croom, L. (1984). The Urban Project: A model to help minority students prepare
for mathematics-based careers. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,
Crump, T. (1990). The anthropology of numbers. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cuevas, G. J. (1984). Mathematics learning in English as a second language.
Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 15, 134-144.
Damerow, P. (1988). Individual development and cultural evolution of arithmetical
thinking. In S. Strauss (Ed.), Ontogeny, phylogeny, and historical development
(pp. 125-152). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Damerow, P., B. Nebres, M. Dunkley and B. Werry (1986). Theme Group 1:
Mathematics for all. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference
on Mathematics Education, Adelaide, Australia.
Davison, D. M. and D. L. Pearce (1992). The influence of writing activities
on the mathematics learning of American Indian students. Journal of Educational
Issues of Language Minority Students, 10, 147-157.
de la Rocha, O. (1985). The reorganization of arithmetic practice in the
kitchen. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 16, 193-198.
Donovan, B. F. (1990). Cultural power and the defining of school mathematics:
A case study. In T. J. Cooney and C. R. Hirsch (Eds.), Teaching and learning
mathematics in the 1990s, 1990 yearbook (pp. 166-173). Reston, VA: National
Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Dossey, J. A., I. V. S. Mullis, M. M. Lindquist, and D. L. Chambers (1988).
The mathematics report card: Are we measuring up, trends and achievement
based on the national assessment. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing
Engelhard, G. (1990). Gender differences in performance on mathematics items:
Evidences from the United States and Thailand. Contemporary Educational
Psychology, 15, 13-26.
The author reported a cross-cultural study of gender differences
in performance on various mathematics items. Engelhard described the subjects,
how they were selected, the test administered to them, and the results of
the study. The data suggested that as the cognitive complexity of the item
increased and the content moved from arithmetic to geometry, the male subjects
performed better than the female subjects. A comparison of the results of
the study in the United States and Thailand supported the findings of earlier
studies that these gender differences were consistent across cultures. Several
tables and an extensive reference list are provided.
Fennema, E., and J. A. Sherman (1976). Fennema-Sherman mathematics attitudes
scales: Instruments designed to measure attitudes toward the learning of
mathematics by females and males. Madison, WI: National Science Foundation.
Frankenstein, M. and A. B. Powell (1988). Empowering non-traditional
college students: The dialectics of society and mathematics education.
Paper presented at the 6th International Congress on Mathematics Education,
Fullilove, R. E. and P. U. Treisman (1990). Mathematics achievement among
African American undergraduates at the University of California, Berkeley:
An evaluation of the Math Workshop Program. The Journal of Negro Education,
Garbe, D. G. (1985). Mathematics vocabulary and the culturally different
student. The Arithmetic Teacher, 33(2), 39-42.
This easy-to-read article dealt with a study of the mathematics
vocabulary of Navajo Indians in the intermediate grades of elementary school.
Several specific problems were identified and suggestions were included
for teachers of not only Navajo students, but teachers of any students whose
second language was English. The article included good ideas for dealing
with "sound like" words such as angle and ankle, sum and sun,
Gay, J. and M. Cole (1967). The new mathematics and old culture: A study
of learning among the Kpelle of Liberia. New York: Holt, Rinehart, &
Gerdes, P. (1986). How to recognise hidden geometrical thinking: A contribution
to the development of anthropological mathematics. For the Learning of
Mathematics, 6(2), 10-17.
Ghosh, S. and S. Giri (1987). Understanding secondary mathematics: Analysis
of linguistic difficulties vis-avis errors. International Journal of
Mathematics Education and Science Technology, 18, 573-579.
Ginsburg, H. P. (1981). The development of knowledge concerning written
arithmetic: A cross-cultural study. International Journal of Psychology,
Ginsburg, H. P. and B. S. Allardice (1984). Children's difficulties with
school mathematics. In B. Rogoff and J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition:
Its development in social context (pp. 194-219). Cambridge: Harvard
Green, L. T. (1990). Test anxiety, mathematics anxiety, and teacher comments:
Relationships to achievement in remedial mathematics classes. The Journal
of Negro Education, 59, 320-335.
Hamill, J. F. (1990). Ethno-logic: The anthropology of human reasoning.
Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Harris, J. (1987). Australian aboriginal and islander mathematics. Australian
Aboriginal Studies, 2, 29-37.
Hart, L. E. (1989). Classroom processes, sex of student, and confidence
in learning mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,
Hart, L. E. (1989). Describing the affective domain: Saying what we mean.
New York: Springer­p;Verlag.
The purpose of this paper was to describe the various meanings
people ascribe to the words attitude, affect, affective domain, belief system,
emotion, and anxiety and to summarize some of the consistencies and inconsistencies
among the meanings.The rationale for this paper was based on the difficulty
that psychologists, mathematics educators interested in research on problem
solving, and mathematics educators interested in research on attitudes toward
mathematics have in communicating to one another using the aforementioned
words due to the different meanings that each group imposed on each of the
terms. The author justified the significance of clarifying the terms across
the three groups by referring to ongoing research in areas related to attitudes,
belief systems, emotions and other affective variables.
Hunting, R. (1987). Mathematics and Australian aboriginal culture. For
the Learning of Mathematics, 7(2), 5-10.
Johnson, M. L. (1989). Minority Differences in Mathematics. In M. M. Lindquist
(Ed.), Results from the fourth mathematics assessment of the National
Assessment of Educational Progress (pp. 135-148). Reston, VA: National
Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Jones, L. V., N. W. Burton, and E. C. Davenport (1984). Monitoring the mathematics
achievement of black students. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,
The authors reviewed findings from the National Assessment of
Educational Progress for 1973 and 1978. At ages 9 and 13 blacks improved
while whites declined in levels of mathematics achievement and yet substantial
differences are found between average mathematics achievement scores of
white and black youth. About one half of the white-black mean difference
was accounted for by regression and school differences in background variables
which played a more prominent role than individual differences within schools.
The best single predictor of mathematics achievement was the number of high
school algebra and geometry courses taken. Marked differences were found
between predominantly black and predominantly white high schools in the
average number of such courses taken. The adoption of policies that reduced
those differences would be expected to result in relatively higher levels
of mathematics achievement for black students.
Klein, A., and P. Starkey (1988). Universals in the development of early
arithmetic cognition. In G. B. Saxe and M. Gearhart (Eds.), Children's
Mathematics (pp. 5-26). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Knight, G. (1984). The geometry of Maori art--rafter patterns. The New
Zealand Magazine, 21(3), 36-40.
Knight, G. (1984). The geometry of Maori art--weaving patterns. The New
Zealand Magazine, 21(3), 80-86.
Lancy, D. F. (1983). Cross-cultural studies in cognition and mathematics.
New York: Academic.
In this book, Lancy presented the theoretical framework, research
methodologies, and findings from a large mathematics education research
project in Papua New Guinea. The project followed the lines of Piagetian
research with elements from Vygotsky's socio-historical psychology. This
position lead the researcher to postulate that societies rather than individual
subjects passed through the developmental stages formulated by Piaget.
Lave, J., M. Murtaugh, and O. de la Rocha (1984). The dialectic of arithmetic
in grocery shopping. In B. Rogoff and J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition:
Its development in social context (pp. 67-94). Cambridge: Harvard Univeristy
Leach, E. (1973). Some anthropological observations on number, time, and
common-sense. In A. G. Howson (Ed.), Developments in mathematics education
(pp. 136-153). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, V. E., and A. S. Bryk (1988). Curriculum Tracking as Mediating the
Social Distribution of High School Achievement. Sociology-of-Education,
Mathematical Sciences Education Board (1989). Making mathematics work
for minorities. Washington, DC: The Author.
The Board provided a rational for all Americans to change because
America was changing. Statistics were provided to show that nearly 40% of
Americans under eighteen were minorities, and by the year 2020, these minorities
would become the majority of students in the United States schools. The
Board emphasized that a major part of the national effort in the 1990's
would be to re-educate parents, principals, teachers, and the public, whose
deeply-entrenched beliefs about who can learn mathematics appeared to limit
Black, Hispanic, and American Indian children in developing their talents
in mathematics. The Board listed six regional workshops and a national convocation
as a first phase of making mathematics work for minorities.
Matthews, W. (1984). Influences on the learning and participation of minorities
in mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 15,
Matthews reviewed twenty-four articles in order to organize
variables (according to parent, student, and school) that influence the
performance and participation of minorities in school mathematics. She found
that few of the parental variables have been studied directly and that several
school characteristics that appear to be influential have not been quantified.
A variety of students' characteristics have been identified and their influence
examined. Matthews listed and discussed the identified variables and suggested
directions for further research.
Matthews, W., T. P. Carpenter, M. M. Lindquist, and E. A. Silver (1984).
The Third National Assessment: Minorities and mathematics. Journal for
Research in Mathematics Education, 15, 165-171.
This article presented and reviewed data from the Third National
Assessment of Educational Progress in Mathematics that was conducted in
1982. Samples from White, Black, and Hispanic 9-, 13-, and 17-year-olds
showed that although Black and Hispanic students continued to score below
the national level of performance, they had made greater progress than whites
since the 1978 assessment. The authors also reported greater gains by schools
with heavy minority enrollment, and that the more mathematics courses taken
increased scores for both blacks and whites.
McKnight, C. C. (1990). Mathematics education, the disadvantaged, and large-
scale investigation: Assessment for stability versus assessment for change.
In M. S. Knapp and B. J. Turnbull (Eds.), Better schooling for the children
of poverty: Alternatives to conventional wisdom (pp. VII1-VII21). Washington,
DC: U. S. Department of Education.
Millroy, W. (1992). An ethnographic study of the mathematical ideas of a
group of carpenters. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 5,
Moore, E. G. J. and A. W. Smith (1985). Mathematics aptitude effect of coursework,
household language and ethnic differences. Urban Education, 20(3),
Murtaugh, M. (1985). The practice of arithmetic by American grocery shoppers.
Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 16, 186-192.
Oakes, J. (1990). Opportunities, achievement, and choice: Women and minority
students in science and mathematics. In C. B. Cazden (Ed.), Review of
research in education, Vol. 16 . (pp. 153-222). Washington, DC: American
Educational Research Association.
The article contained an extensive review of the literature
surrounding factors which may lead to the underrepresentation and underachievement
of women and minorities in mathematics and science. The main categories
for these factors were: cognitive, affective, schooling, and societal. The
authors also discussed the mathematics and science pipeline, and gave several
research implications and topics. The article contained an extensive bibliography.
Okonji, M. O. (1971). Culture and children's understanding of geometry.
International Journal of Psychology, 6, 121-128.
This study attempted to replicate Piaget's investigation of
the development of geometric concepts among children in the Ankole district
of Uganda where there are no traditional precision measurement instruments
either geometric or otherwise. Researchers studied the extent to which schooling
experiences affected development in geometry. While the findings of the
study indicated some evidence of developmental lag among non-Western school
children relative to their Western counterparts, it was also revealed that
when non-school cultural experiences were not inhibited or were facilitated,
the influence of schooling on the children's understanding of conservation
concepts was tremendous. Therefore, this investigation suggested that certain
concepts of geometry may depend heavily on schooling rather than on the
biologically based maturing of the logical structures of the child.
Ortiz-Franco, L. (1990). Interrelationship of seven mathematical abilities
across languages. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 12, 299-312.
The article discusses an ex post facto analysis of the interrelationships
of divergent thinking, general reasoning, field-dependence, mathematics
achievement, reading of mathematical prose, syllogistic reasoning and mathematical
word problem solving among Hispanic students. The findings of this study
touch on two issues: educational policy and mathematics education research.
The researchers think that the Spanish version of the reading, mathematics
achievement, and mathematical problem-solving tests can be used by school
personnel to assess these academic abilities among foreign born Spanish-speaking
students at the prealgebra level. The research illustrated the complexity
that exists between language, culture, and thought, on one hand, and the
new avenues which the psychometric tradition can open for cross-cultural
research in mathematics education in the psychometric tradition on the other.
Pea, R. D. (1990). Inspecting everyday mathematics: Reexamining culture-
cognition relations. Educational Researcher, 19(4), 28-31.
Pea reviewed the two books: Cognition in Practice: Mind, Pathematics,
and Culture in Everyday Life by Jean Lave, and Culture and Cognitive Development:
Studies in Mathematical Understanding by Geofrey Saxe. Both authors attempted
to provide empirical links between cultural practices and cognition for
mathematical activities. Lave's book documented ten years of research concerning
"the occurrence, organization and results of arithmetic practice in
everyday situation." Saxe, in examining the interplay of culture and
cognition, looked at the transfer of learning of school-linked cognitive
forms to everyday practice-linked problems and vice versa. Pea believed
the authors' views that problems emerged out of dilemmas and that learning
arose when means were sought to resolve these dilemmas. He praised their
focus on learning competencies rather than failures and proposed that such
a focus will contribute more to advancing effective learning practices than
repeated diagnoses of failures.
Petitto, A. L. (1982). Practical arithmetic and transfer. Journal of
Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13(1) 15-28.
Petitto, A. L., and H. P. Ginsburg (1982). Mental arithmetic in Africa and
America: Strategies, principles, and explanations. Educational Studies
in Mathematics, 17, 81-102.
Pinxten, R., I. van Dooren, and F. Harvey (1983). Anthropology of space:
Explorations into natural philosophy and semantics of the Navajo. Philadelphia,
PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
The authors reported their findings from an anthropological
study of the Navajo's concept of space. To conduct this study, they elaborated
a framework for investigating that concept. They claimed that it could be
used to study the concept of space in any ethnic or cultural group. They
also presented some possible consequences of their findings for mathematics
education. According to them, mathematics educators of Navajo children had
three choices: to develop the Western conceptualization, to develop the
Navajo conceptualization, or to try to integrate them in a coherent way.
The authors were in favor of the third option.
Porter, A. C. (1990). Good teaching of worthwhile mathematics to disadvantaged
students. In M. S. Knapp and B. J. Turnbull (Eds.), Better Schooling
for the children of poverty: Alternatives to conventional wisdom. (pp.
V1-V22). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education.
Porter's article was based on his premise that strengthening
the teaching and learning of academic content would solve the larger problems
of society. In studying, understanding, and/or defining mathematics education
of disadvantaged students he discussed the need to consider the learners,
teacher, curriculum,and milieu. Porter also discussed the idea that worthwhile
mathematics content enabled students to apply their conceptual knowledge
to novel problems and that good teaching was a rational, goal-oriented process.
Though he tested and discussed characteristics of good teaching, he did
note that there was a difference in deciding what constitutes good teaching
and creating good teachers. Porter lastly discussed curriculum materials,
texts that focused on skills versus problem solving, and the redundancy
that occured through textbook series. Porter called for a reductionary change,
a reformulation of policies, a redesign of textbooks, and the understanding
of the fact that real and lastly changes lie ultimately with the individual
teacher. His focus was that disadvantaged students are most in need and
that is where the limited resources should be invested.
Presmeg, N. C. (1988). School mathematics in culture-conflict situations.
Educational Studies in Mathematics, 19, 163-177.
Reyes, L. H., and G. M. A. Stanic (1985). A review of the literature
on blacks and mathematics. ERIC/SMEAC Information Bulletin, 1, 1-7.
Reyes, L. H., and G. M. A. Stanic (1988). Race, sex, socioeconomic status
and mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 19,
Robinson, A., R. H. Bradley, and T. D. Stanley (1990). Opportunity to achieve:
Identifying mathematically gifted black students. Contemporary Educational
Psychology, 15, 1-12.
Rosin, R. T. (1984). Golden medallions: The arithmetic calculations of an
illiterate. Anthropology Education Quarterly, 15(1), 38-50.
Rosin called his research a study on ethnoarithmetic. In this
particular study, he investigated the mental arithmetic of an illiterate
peasant in India in the context of buying golden medallions. Rosin showed
that literacy is not a necessary condition for doing mathematics.
Rounds, J. B. and D. D. Hendel (1980). Mathematics anxiety and attitudes
toward mathematics. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 13(2), 83-89.
The objectives of this report were 1) to examine the concept
of mathematics anxiety as measured by the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale
(MARS) and the Math Anxiety Scale (MAS) with respect to their relationship
to a measure of attitudes toward mathematics and arithmetic performance
and 2) to provide data describing attitudes toward mathematics of participants
in a math-anxiety treatment program. On the basis of the correlation between
the Mathematics Anxiety Scale and the Math Anxiety Scale and correlations
among the Fennma-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales and these measures,
the researchers were unable to conclude for this sample of math-anxious
individuals that the MARS and MAS measure the same construct. Mathematics
anxiety is a unique affective variable that appears to be distinct from
other affective variables.
Saxe, G. B. (1982). The development of measurement operations among the
Oksapmin of Papua New Guinea. Child Development, 53, 1242-1248.
Saxe, G. B. (1983). Culture, counting, and number conservation. International
Journal of Psychology, 18, 313-318.
Saxe, G. B. (1985). Effcets of schooling on arithmetical understanding:
Studies with Oksapmin children in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 77, 503-513.
Saxe, G. B. (1988). Candy selling and math learning. Educational Researcher,
Saxe, G. B. (1988). The mathematics of child street vendors. Child Development,
The author addressed the issue of relationships between culture
and cognition in the context solving arithmetic problems. The research was
conducted with street vendors and non-vendors, largely unschooled, between
10- and 12-year-old kids in northeast Brazil. The findings supported a constructivist
model of cognitive development. This model states that children create novel
procedures and understandings in copying with their every day cultural practices.
Saxe, G. (1991). Culture and cognitive development: Studies in mathematical
understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Saxe, G. B. (1991). From the field to the classroom: Studies in mathematical
understanding. Paper presented at the National Meeting of the National
Council for Teachers of Mathematics, New Orleans.
Saxe, G. B., and M. Gerhart (1990). A developmental analysis of everyday
topology in unschooled straw weavers. British Journal of Developmental
Psychology, 8, 251-258.
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for school teaching. In P. Damerow, M. E. Dunkley, B. F. Nebres and B. Werry
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British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 259-268.
Scribner, S. (1984). Pricing delivery tickets: "School arithmetic"
in a practical setting. The Quarterly Newsletter of the Laboratory of
Comparative Human Cognition, 6(1 and 2), 19-25.
Secada, W. G. (1990). Selected issues for studying the mathematics education
of the disadvantaged. In M. S. Knapp and B. J. Turnbull (Eds.), Better
schooling for the children of poverty: Alternatives to conventional wisdom.
(pp. VI1-VI17). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education.
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in mathematics. In D. Grouws (Ed), Handbook of research on mathematics
teaching and learning. New York: Macmillan.
Sells, L. (1978). Mathematics - A critical filter. Science Teacher, 45,
Lucy Sells stated that mathematics courses in high school often
served as a "critical filter" which hindered many female and minority
students from pursuing mathematical related careers. She also discussed
several programs such as SEED which were designed to help increase the enrollment
level and achievement level of female and minority students.
Snoeck, K. (1990). Language and the teaching of mathematics of Turkish children.
In M. Byran and J. Leman (Eds.), Bicultural and trilingual education
(pp. 115-125). Clevedon, PA: Multilingual Matters.
Song, M. J., and H. P. Ginsburg (1988). The effect of the Korean number
system on young children's counting: A natural experiment in numerical bilingualism.
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Stanic, G. M. A., and L. E. Hart (1990). Attitudes and achievement-related
behaviors of middle school mathematics students. Unpublished paper.
The University of Georgia, Athens.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the achievement­p;related
behaviors of sixteen students in a seventh grade mathematics classroom.
In particular, the study focused on the differences and similarities of
the attitudes and achievement related behaviors of black and white girls
and boys in the class. The attitudes and behavior on which the authors focused
were confidence in learning mathematics, perceived usefulness of mathematics,
enjoyment of mathematics, and the achievement­p;related behavior of persistence.
The findings were clearer when race and gender were examined simultaneously
than when either race or gender were examined alone.
Stanic, G. M. A., and L. H. Reyes (1987). Excellence and equity in mathematics
classrooms. For the Learning of Mathematics, 7(2), 27-31.
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and evaluation standards. In T. J. Cooney and C. R. Hirsch (Eds.), Teaching
and learning mathematics in the 1990s, 1990 yearbook (pp. 152-158).
Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Stiff, L. V. and W. B. Harvey (1988). On the education of black children
in mathematics. Journal of Black Studies, 19, 190-203.
Stokes, A. (1990). Relationship among level of cognitive development, gender,
chronological age, and mathematics achievement. The Journal of Negro
Education, 59, 299-315.
Treisman, P. U. (1985). A study of mathematics performance of black students
at the University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley, CA: University
Tsang, S. (1984). The mathematics education of Asian Americans. Journal
for Research in Mathematics Education, 15, 114-122.
Turner, J. K. (1987). Ethnomathematics and primary education in Bhutan.
Mathematics Journal of Bhutan, 6-14.
Turner, J. K. (1988). A rationale for teaching Bhutan's primary school mathematics
through an integrated approach. Mathematics Journal of Bhutan, 8-13.
Turner, J. K. (1990). Complementarity, ethnomathematics, and primary
education in Bhutan. Unpublished paper, France Xavier University, Antigonish,
The above three articles by Turner discuss the value and approach
of teaching mathematics in Primary School through culturally motivated games,
songs, and movement activities of Bhutanese children. The articles tie this
approach ot existing literature on brain hemisphericity, the role of play
and ethnomathematics. Examples of Bhutanese cultural/mathematical activites
Valverde, L. A. (1984). Hispanic students and mathematics. In H. Cheek (Ed.),
Handbook for conducting equity activities in mathematics education
. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Valverde, L. A. (1984). Underachievement and underrepresentation of Hispanics
in mathematics and mathematics-related careers. Journal for Research
in Mathematics Education, 15, 123-133.
Welch, W. W., R. E. Anderson and L. J. Harris (1982). The effects of schooling
on mathematics achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 19,
The authors discussed the results of their study on the proportions
of variance in mathematics achievement attributable to differences in the
number of semesters of mathematics studied after taking into account other
background influences. The study was conducted with a national random sample
of 2,216 17-year old students. Eight background variables, representing
the home, community, and individual factors which have been found to be
related to student learning, were used. An extensive reference list was
Zaslavsky, C. (1979). Africa counts: Number and pattern in African culture.
New York: Lawrence Hill Books.
Zaslavsky, C. (1989). Integrating mathematics with the study of cultural
traditions. In C. Keitel, P. Damerow, A. Bishop, and P. Gerdes (Eds.),
(pp. 14-15). Paris: UNESCO.
Zucker, A. A. (1990). Review of research on effective curriculum and instruction
in mathematics. In M. S. Knapp and B. J. Turnbull (Eds.), Better schooling
for the children of poverty: Alternatives to conventional wisdom. (pp.
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Definitions, competencies, and activities. Journal of Science Teacher
Education, 1(1), 17-20.
Charron, E. (1991). Toward a social-contexts frame of reference for science
education research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28,
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Psychology, 8, 289-294.
Driver, R. (1990). Everyday science: Is it rigth or does it work? British
Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 295-297.
Eccles, J. S. (1989). Bringing young women to math and science. In M. Crawford
and M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives
(pp. 36-58). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Elliott, J., and C. Powell (1987). Young women and science: Do we need more
science? British Journal of Sociology of Education, 8, 277-286.
Harris, P. (1990). The nature of everyday science: A commentary. British
Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 299-303.
Hatano, G. (1990). The nature of everyday science: A brief introduction.
British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 245-250.
Kahle, J. B. (1989). Development of a theoretical basis for gender differences
in interest l evels and retention rates in science. Paper presented
at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science
Teaching, San Francisco, CA.
Levidow, L. (1987). Racism in scientific innovation. In D. Gill and L. Levidow
(Eds.), Anti-racist science teaching (pp. 43-58). London: Free Association.
Rattansi, P. (1989). History and philosophy of science and multicultural
science teaching. In M. Shortland and A. Warwick (Eds.), Teaching the
history of science (pp. 118-125). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Reiss, M. (1990). Whither multicultural science. Journal of Biological
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Rotberg, I. C. (1990). Resources and reality: The participation of minorities
in science and engineering education. Phi Delta Kappan, 72, 672-678.
Selden, S. (1989). The use of biology to legitimate inequality: The eugenics
movement within the high school biology textbook, 1914-1949. In W. G. Secada
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Tobin, K., J. B. Kahle, and B. J. Fraser (Eds) (1990). Windows into science
classrooms: Problems associated with higher-level cognitive learning.
This book contained a collection of articles about the teaching
and learning of sciences. Some of the chapters in this book are individually
listed in this bibliography.
van Sertima, I. (Ed.). (1989). Blacks in science: Ancient and modern.
London: Transaction Books.
Vance, M. (1987). Biology teaching in a racist society. In D. Gill and L.
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Watts, S. (1986). Science education for a multicultural society: Towards
a good practice. In R. K. Arora and C. G. Duncan (Eds.), Multicultural
education (pp. 135-146). London: Routledge Kegan.
Young, R. M. (1987). Racist society, racist science. In D. Gill and L. Levidow
(Eds.), Anti-racist science teaching. (pp. 16-42). London: Free Association.
Gill, D. and L. Levidow (Eds.) (1987). Anti-racist science teaching.
London: Free Association.
Gill, D., V. Patel, A. Sethi, and H. Smith (1987). Science curriculum innovation
at Holland Park School. In D. Gill and L. Levidow (Eds.), Anti-racist
science teaching (pp. 147-175). London: Free Association.
Gill, D., E. Singh and M. Vance (1987). Multicultural versus anti-racist
science: Biology. In D. Gill and L. Levidow (Eds.), Anti-racist science
teaching (pp. 124-135). London: Free Association.
Hays, E. T. (1989). Developing an undergraduate introduction to research
course for minority students. Journal for College Science Teaching, 19,
Jackson, P. (1989). Challenging racism through geography teaching. Journal
of Geography in Higher Education, 13, 5-14.
Mears, T. (1986). Multicultural and anti-racist approaches to the teaching
of science in schools. In J. Guadara, C. Jones and K. Kimberley (Eds.),
Racism, diversity and education (pp. 154-166). London: Hodder and
Turner, S., and T. Turner (1987). Multicultural education in the initial
training of science teachers. Research in Science and Technology Education,
Atwater, M. M., and B. Alick (1990). Cognitive development and problem solving
of Afro-American students in chemistry. Journal of Research in Science
Teaching, 27, 157-172.
Atwater, M. M., and R. D. Simpson (1984). Cognitive and affective variables
affecting Black freshmen in science and engineering at a predominately white
university. Bowling Green, OH: School Science and Mathematics Association.
The purpose of this study was to learn more about how Black
freshmen fare in science and engineering at large, historically white state
universities, and the variables that tend to be related to their success
and nonsuccess. Another goal of the study was to determine which factors
among black students were significantly related to their success in science
and engineering, and which ones were not. The authors concluded that if
Black students come with realistic expectations of the university experience
and if the university provides help to Black students who have problems,
then more Black students will be successful. They also suggested a need
for further study in this area.
Head, J., and J. Ramsden (1990). Genderpsychological type and science. International
Journal of Science Education, 12, 115-121.
Hill, O. W., W. C. Pettus, and B. A. Hedin (1990). Three studies of factors
affecting the attitudes of blacks and females toward the pursuit of science
and science-related careers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching,
Kahle, J. B. (1990). Real students take chemistry and physics: Gender issues.
In K. Tobin, J. B. Kahle and B. J. Fraser (Eds.), Windows into science
classrooms: Problems associated with higher-level cognitive learning (pp.
92-134). London: Falmer.
Kahle, J. B. (1988). Gender and science education II. In P. Fensham (Ed.),
Development and dilemmas in science education (pp. 249-265). London:
Levin, I., R. S. Siegler, S. Druyan and R. Gardosh (1990). Everyday and
curriculum-based physics concepts: When does short-term training bring change
where years of schooling have failed to do so? British Journal of Developmental
Psychology, 8, 269-279.
Orey, D. C. (1984). LOGO goes Guatemalan: An ethnographic study. The
Computing Teacher, 12(1), 46-47.
Schemesh, M. (1990). Gender-related differences in reasoning skills and
learning interest of Junior High School students. Journal of Research
in Science Teaching, 27, 27-34.
Tema, B. O. (1989). Rural and urban African pupils' alternative conceptions
of 'animal'. Journal of Biological Education, 23, 199-207.
Thijs, G. D., and J. Kuiper (1991). Use of intuitive models of force among
secondary school students as found in a cross-cultural study. In N. Bleichrodt
and P. J. D. Drenth (Eds.), Contemporary issues in cross-cultural psychology
(pp. 309-321). Berwyn, PA: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Trigwell, K. (1990). The effects of an alternative science degree programme
on the participation of women in the physical science. Journal of Research
in Science Teaching, 27, 25-34.